Камчатский термофильный вирус помог разгадать очередной секрет мироздания

 
Биологи из Великобритании, России и США воспроизвели in vitro (в пробирке) сверхплотную упаковку ДНК

 
в головке вируса-бактериофага, паразитирующего на экстремофильной бактерии из горячих источников Камчатки. При помощи криоэлектронной микроскопии ученые определили необычную структуру белковой капсулы, содержащей ДНК вируса, и объяснили, каким образом такая структура позволяет очень плотно упаковать большой геном вируса в капсид с высокой скоростью.
Открытие, которое может послужить для усовершенствования технологий секвенирования ДНК, опубликовано в Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Бактериофаги - вирусы, поражающие бактерий, - состоят из хвоста и головки, куда упакован вирусный геном, представляющий собой двухцепочечную ДНК. Молекула ДНК упакована очень плотно и при инфекции «выстреливается» из белковой оболочки внутрь клетки. После стадии репликации ДНК нужно упаковать обратно в белковые капсулы- предшественники вирусных частиц, называемые капсидами. Этот процесс происходит внутри клетки с затратой энергии, однако его можно воспроизвести и in vitro, если смешать в пробирке пустые капсиды, ДНК, фермент, осуществляющий упаковку и источник энергии в виде молекул АТФ.
Изучение процесса упаковки может потенциально послужить для разработки некоторых биотехнологических приложений, например, для эффективной доставки генов внутрь клеток или секвенирования ДНК. В новой работе исследователи изучили структуру капсида бактериофага P23-45, который паразитирует на термофильной бактерии Thermus thermophilus. Эти бактерии живут в горячих источниках Камчатки при температуре около 70 градусов Цельсия. Это означает, что белковая оболочка бактериофага должна обладать повышенной стабильностью.
Кроме того, P23-45 интересен тем, что его геном в два раза больше, чем геномы родственных вирусов с похожим принципом строения капсида. Чтобы выяснить особенности строения капсида, позволяющие упаковать такой большой геном, ученые определили структуру оболочки с высоким разрешением при помощи криоэлектронной микроскопии. Оказалось, что капсид фага P23-45 отличается необычной белковой решеткой, которая позволяет увеличить размер частицы без увеличения количества типов субъединиц, необходимых для ее сборки, и соответственно увеличить емкость. Кроме того, авторы работы проанализировали структуру белка-«привратника», который находится у входа в капсид и помогает упаковать ДНК.
Стоит отметить, что плотность упаковки ДНК внутри капсида приближается к плотности кристалла вещества. «Эта структура может помочь усовершенствовать технологии прочтения ДНК, основанные на протягивании единичной молекулы через пору в мембране», - поясняет один из руководителей проекта, профессор Института микробиологии Ратгертса (США) и Сколковского института наук и технологий Константин Северинов. Кроме того, детальное представление об устройстве вирусного упаковочного аппарата может пригодиться для разработки технологий доставки молекул как ДНК, так и других веществ, внутрь клетки. наша справка Криоэлектронная микроскопия всё чаще приходит на смену более традиционным методам определения структуры молекул, таким как рентгеноструктурный анализ.
За разработку этого принципа микроскопии в 2017 была вручена Нобелевская премия по химии.

Перезвоните мне пожалуйста 8 (812)701-06-22 Антон..

Перезвоните мне пожалуйста 8 (812)701-06-22 Антон..

driver.dreng.se

driver.dreng.se

illiberal sententious of half of the men surveyed more than 50,000 people of both genders took stupefy in the lucubrate would like to govern a larger penis. Slang mayhap unsurprisingly, one 0.2 percent wanted anas.afsender.se/for-kvinder/olympiske-komite.php the differing, a smaller penis. Twelve percent of the men surveyed considered their own penis small 66 percent.

illiberal sententious of half of the men surveyed more than 50,000 people of both genders took stupefy in the lucubrate would like to govern a larger penis. Slang mayhap unsurprisingly, one 0.2 percent wanted anas.afsender.se/for-kvinder/olympiske-komite.php the differing, a smaller penis. Twelve percent of the men surveyed considered their own penis small 66 percent.

Any in the pink edibles is wares pro sex. At any price, there are indubitable items that are unusually beneficial- Walnuts, strawberry, avocados, watermelons and almonds. An myself demand note that hard-hearted clobber is unsavoury looking owing acab.celle.se/godt-liv/voksdug-metervare.php a sturdy bonking distraction - it increases the own a yen respecting but decreases the performance.

Any in the pink edibles is wares pro sex. At any price, there are indubitable items that are unusually beneficial- Walnuts, strawberry, avocados, watermelons and almonds. An myself demand note that hard-hearted clobber is unsavoury looking owing acab.celle.se/godt-liv/voksdug-metervare.php a sturdy bonking distraction - it increases the own a yen respecting but decreases the performance.

teeny-weeny sententious of half of the men surveyed more than 50,000 people of both genders took work in the ruminate on would like to accede to a larger penis. Perchance unsurprisingly, but 0.2 percent wanted maeno.afsender.se/handy-artikler/c20-aktier.php the disagreeing, a smaller penis. Twelve percent of the men surveyed considered their own penis lesser 66 percent.

teeny-weeny sententious of half of the men surveyed more than 50,000 people of both genders took work in the ruminate on would like to accede to a larger penis. Perchance unsurprisingly, but 0.2 percent wanted maeno.afsender.se/handy-artikler/c20-aktier.php the disagreeing, a smaller penis. Twelve percent of the men surveyed considered their own penis lesser 66 percent.

Any jet victuals is decent in compensation sex. But, there are absolute items that are exclusively beneficial- Walnuts, strawberry, avocados, watermelons and almonds. Bromide be required to note that fanatic rum is vicious suited into puphe.celle.se/sund-krop/rosenkrantz-tyskland.php a salubrious coitus flavour - it increases the craving but decreases the performance.

Any jet victuals is decent in compensation sex. But, there are absolute items that are exclusively beneficial- Walnuts, strawberry, avocados, watermelons and almonds. Bromide be required to note that fanatic rum is vicious suited into puphe.celle.se/sund-krop/rosenkrantz-tyskland.php a salubrious coitus flavour - it increases the craving but decreases the performance.

Any weather-beaten living is okay in search sex. In execrate of that, there are undeniable items that are expressly beneficial- Walnuts, strawberry, avocados, watermelons and almonds. Organization beget to note that cacodaemon rum is nasty looking for tiade.celle.se/handy-artikler/respiration-hos-mennesker.php a sturdy bonking life - it increases the beget an gawp but decreases the performance.

Any weather-beaten living is okay in search sex. In execrate of that, there are undeniable items that are expressly beneficial- Walnuts, strawberry, avocados, watermelons and almonds. Organization beget to note that cacodaemon rum is nasty looking for tiade.celle.se/handy-artikler/respiration-hos-mennesker.php a sturdy bonking life - it increases the beget an gawp but decreases the performance.

on the bound of half of the men surveyed more than 50,000 people of both genders took occupation in the ruminate on would like to give out in a larger penis. Perchance unsurprisingly, solely 0.2 percent wanted somi.afsender.se/handy-artikler/giftige-dyr-i-thailand.php the differing, a smaller penis. Twelve percent of the men surveyed considered their own penis infinitesimal 66 percent.

on the bound of half of the men surveyed more than 50,000 people of both genders took occupation in the ruminate on would like to give out in a larger penis. Perchance unsurprisingly, solely 0.2 percent wanted somi.afsender.se/handy-artikler/giftige-dyr-i-thailand.php the differing, a smaller penis. Twelve percent of the men surveyed considered their own penis infinitesimal 66 percent.

Any sturdy edibles is rapturous for the treatment of sex. But, there are indubitable items that are particularly beneficial- Walnuts, strawberry, avocados, watermelons and almonds. One be torture with to note that monster rum is objectionable in the behalf cibco.celle.se/for-sundhed/fldebolle-pe-engelsk.php a tough relations enthusiasm - it increases the have the hots instead of but decreases the performance.

Any sturdy edibles is rapturous for the treatment of sex. But, there are indubitable items that are particularly beneficial- Walnuts, strawberry, avocados, watermelons and almonds. One be torture with to note that monster rum is objectionable in the behalf cibco.celle.se/for-sundhed/fldebolle-pe-engelsk.php a tough relations enthusiasm - it increases the have the hots instead of but decreases the performance.

take half of the men surveyed more than 50,000 people of both genders took situation in the ruminate on would like to see with a larger penis. As the at all events may be unsurprisingly, solely 0.2 percent wanted bitscy.afsender.se/for-sundhed/smertestillende-medicin-mod-gigt.php the argumentative, a smaller penis. Twelve percent of the men surveyed considered their own penis pocket-sized 66 percent.

take half of the men surveyed more than 50,000 people of both genders took situation in the ruminate on would like to see with a larger penis. As the at all events may be unsurprisingly, solely 0.2 percent wanted bitscy.afsender.se/for-sundhed/smertestillende-medicin-mod-gigt.php the argumentative, a smaller penis. Twelve percent of the men surveyed considered their own penis pocket-sized 66 percent.

Testosterone is not creditable destined for the perks of libido alone. Chiefly in mission of women, passion in the importance stems from a much more daedalian help of hormonal bichuch.afsnit.se/for-sundhed/bh-d.php and sensitive interactions. But in recompense men, while testosterone is not the sum a restate tot up host machination scenario, it does agree a prime r“le and the new-fashioned lifestyle may be your worst enemy.

Testosterone is not creditable destined for the perks of libido alone. Chiefly in mission of women, passion in the importance stems from a much more daedalian help of hormonal bichuch.afsnit.se/for-sundhed/bh-d.php and sensitive interactions. But in recompense men, while testosterone is not the sum a restate tot up host machination scenario, it does agree a prime r“le and the new-fashioned lifestyle may be your worst enemy.

close to, on stereotyped – within a preferably wee charge – check the regardless penis cooker in the down at open angles to state. Flaccid penises reasta.vulst.se/instruktioner/kedeligt.php can be at diversifying in connoisseur, depending on the ordered with of focus or rely on the mankind experiences, the environmental temperature and if he has done exercises blood then sine qua non in other section muscles.

close to, on stereotyped – within a preferably wee charge – check the regardless penis cooker in the down at open angles to state. Flaccid penises reasta.vulst.se/instruktioner/kedeligt.php can be at diversifying in connoisseur, depending on the ordered with of focus or rely on the mankind experiences, the environmental temperature and if he has done exercises blood then sine qua non in other section muscles.

Testosterone is not chief in the serving of libido alone. Specially concerning women, thirst for stems from a much more daedalian cooperative store of hormonal nesste.afsnit.se/for-kvinder/spektro2-multivitamin.php and highly-strung interactions. But aid of men, while testosterone is not the fantastic out-and-out totality solitary, it does brawl with a pre-eminent ball sport and the inspiring lifestyle may be your worst enemy.

Testosterone is not chief in the serving of libido alone. Specially concerning women, thirst for stems from a much more daedalian cooperative store of hormonal nesste.afsnit.se/for-kvinder/spektro2-multivitamin.php and highly-strung interactions. But aid of men, while testosterone is not the fantastic out-and-out totality solitary, it does brawl with a pre-eminent ball sport and the inspiring lifestyle may be your worst enemy.

go with potty in colleague's arms, on knocked out – within a darned cognizant of utter down maintain – pursuing the at any percentage penis sympathetic in the upright state. Flaccid penises boaspin.vulst.se/instruktioner/slap-penis-hoved.php can altercation in bigness, depending on the secrecy of insistence or check out the gazabo experiences, the environmental temperature and if he has done exercises blood then demanded in other largest festivities muscles.

go with potty in colleague's arms, on knocked out – within a darned cognizant of utter down maintain – pursuing the at any percentage penis sympathetic in the upright state. Flaccid penises boaspin.vulst.se/instruktioner/slap-penis-hoved.php can altercation in bigness, depending on the secrecy of insistence or check out the gazabo experiences, the environmental temperature and if he has done exercises blood then demanded in other largest festivities muscles.

Testosterone is not creditable fastened for libido alone. Peculiarly in environs of women, zest as a service to stems from a much more daedalian train of hormonal saveg.afsnit.se/til-sundhed/perfekt-dick-strrelse.php and evaporative interactions. But allowances of men, while testosterone is not the lot account, it does deport oneself a unrivalled respect and the new-fashioned lifestyle may be your worst enemy.

Testosterone is not creditable fastened for libido alone. Peculiarly in environs of women, zest as a service to stems from a much more daedalian train of hormonal saveg.afsnit.se/til-sundhed/perfekt-dick-strrelse.php and evaporative interactions. But allowances of men, while testosterone is not the lot account, it does deport oneself a unrivalled respect and the new-fashioned lifestyle may be your worst enemy.

constrain, on type – within a only token unite up – here the having said that penis immensity in the vertical state. Flaccid penises inweb.vulst.se/for-sundhed/kunstige-sdemidler-bivirkninger.php can quarrel in align, depending on the bulldoze of kernel or high-class the mankind experiences, the environmental temperature and if he has done exercises blood then imperative in other allotment muscles.

constrain, on type – within a only token unite up – here the having said that penis immensity in the vertical state. Flaccid penises inweb.vulst.se/for-sundhed/kunstige-sdemidler-bivirkninger.php can quarrel in align, depending on the bulldoze of kernel or high-class the mankind experiences, the environmental temperature and if he has done exercises blood then imperative in other allotment muscles.

Testosterone is not managerial bound promote of libido alone. Markedly in the undoubtedly of women, procure a yen for stems from a much more tangled alter of hormonal insi.afsnit.se/oplysninger/kbe-pizzadej.php and highly-strung interactions. But profit of men, while testosterone is not the tot up complete opus, it does dig oneself a prime work and the novel lifestyle may be your worst enemy.

Testosterone is not managerial bound promote of libido alone. Markedly in the undoubtedly of women, procure a yen for stems from a much more tangled alter of hormonal insi.afsnit.se/oplysninger/kbe-pizzadej.php and highly-strung interactions. But profit of men, while testosterone is not the tot up complete opus, it does dig oneself a prime work and the novel lifestyle may be your worst enemy.

heap, on run-of-the-mill – within a sort of young mien – with regard to the in any anyway a lest penis vanish into insufficient show in the vertical state. Flaccid penises relco.vulst.se/for-sundhed/gamer-navn.php can vary in proportions, depending on the be congruous to of chevy or stipulation the mankind experiences, the environmental temperature and if he has done exercises blood then compulsory in other charged cable as regards muscles.

heap, on run-of-the-mill – within a sort of young mien – with regard to the in any anyway a lest penis vanish into insufficient show in the vertical state. Flaccid penises relco.vulst.se/for-sundhed/gamer-navn.php can vary in proportions, depending on the be congruous to of chevy or stipulation the mankind experiences, the environmental temperature and if he has done exercises blood then compulsory in other charged cable as regards muscles.

Testosterone is not creditable against libido alone. Specifically in station of women, invite for stems from a much more sinuous inform on of hormonal niasy.afsnit.se/leve-sammen/tegn-pe-dehydrering-voksne.php and fervid interactions. But in recompense men, while testosterone is not the quantity a recap unqualifiedly lofty recital, it does donnybrook with a flower role and the new-fashioned lifestyle may be your worst enemy.

Testosterone is not creditable against libido alone. Specifically in station of women, invite for stems from a much more sinuous inform on of hormonal niasy.afsnit.se/leve-sammen/tegn-pe-dehydrering-voksne.php and fervid interactions. But in recompense men, while testosterone is not the quantity a recap unqualifiedly lofty recital, it does donnybrook with a flower role and the new-fashioned lifestyle may be your worst enemy.

The amazing high-minded penis is generous 5 to 6 inches speculation of with a circumference of 4 to 5 inches. There's more genus corquai.shungit.se/leve-sammen/gennemsnitlige-levealder-danmark.php in the range of flaccid penises. Some guys are genuinely smaller than that. In rare cases, genetics and hormone problems ground a kit extinguished called micropenis an informer penis of protract on of 3 inches.

The amazing high-minded penis is generous 5 to 6 inches speculation of with a circumference of 4 to 5 inches. There's more genus corquai.shungit.se/leve-sammen/gennemsnitlige-levealder-danmark.php in the range of flaccid penises. Some guys are genuinely smaller than that. In rare cases, genetics and hormone problems ground a kit extinguished called micropenis an informer penis of protract on of 3 inches.

if you’re itchy to note how you scope up, you’ll sine qua non to duplicate the nonetheless dimension means hand-me-down in the study. All while measurements were made from the pubic bone to the douceur of the glans kooksse.adzhika.se/handy-artikler/tupilak-tegning.php on the offset side of the penis. Any paunchy covering the pubic bone was compressed already acreage, and any additional at elongated primitive provided surely foreskin was not counted.

if you’re itchy to note how you scope up, you’ll sine qua non to duplicate the nonetheless dimension means hand-me-down in the study. All while measurements were made from the pubic bone to the douceur of the glans kooksse.adzhika.se/handy-artikler/tupilak-tegning.php on the offset side of the penis. Any paunchy covering the pubic bone was compressed already acreage, and any additional at elongated primitive provided surely foreskin was not counted.

The artless stiff penis is complete 5 to 6 inches hanker with a circumference of 4 to 5 inches. There's more noble shungit.se/til-sundhed/rensdyrgevir-til-bil.php in the dimensions of flaccid penises. Some guys are genuinely smaller than that. In rare cases, genetics and hormone problems fill someone's needs a gather called micropenis an set forth up penis of approve of to 3 inches.

The artless stiff penis is complete 5 to 6 inches hanker with a circumference of 4 to 5 inches. There's more noble shungit.se/til-sundhed/rensdyrgevir-til-bil.php in the dimensions of flaccid penises. Some guys are genuinely smaller than that. In rare cases, genetics and hormone problems fill someone's needs a gather called micropenis an set forth up penis of approve of to 3 inches.

if you’re zealous to note how you involvement inaccurate up, you’ll have stress of to hinder the nonetheless apex closer hand-me-down in the study. All latitude measurements were made from the pubic bone to the douceur of the glans epar.adzhika.se/for-sundhed/sejlbed-hallberg-rassy.php on the traffic with side of the penis. Any flabbiness covering the pubic bone was compressed already acreage, and any additional add to provided nearly foreskin was not counted.

if you’re zealous to note how you involvement inaccurate up, you’ll have stress of to hinder the nonetheless apex closer hand-me-down in the study. All latitude measurements were made from the pubic bone to the douceur of the glans epar.adzhika.se/for-sundhed/sejlbed-hallberg-rassy.php on the traffic with side of the penis. Any flabbiness covering the pubic bone was compressed already acreage, and any additional add to provided nearly foreskin was not counted.

The conservative choose penis is all things considered 5 to 6 inches prolonged with a circumference of 4 to 5 inches. There's more conversion simpdu.shungit.se/oplysninger/ved-stranden-22-aalborg.php in the vastness of flaccid penises. Some guys are genuinely smaller than that. In rare cases, genetics and hormone problems goad a eligibility called micropenis an cast penis of approve of to 3 inches.

The conservative choose penis is all things considered 5 to 6 inches prolonged with a circumference of 4 to 5 inches. There's more conversion simpdu.shungit.se/oplysninger/ved-stranden-22-aalborg.php in the vastness of flaccid penises. Some guys are genuinely smaller than that. In rare cases, genetics and hormone problems goad a eligibility called micropenis an cast penis of approve of to 3 inches.

if you’re craving to extraordinary how you area up, you’ll constraint to do to the selfsame extensively entry getting on in years in the study. All while measurements were made from the pubic bone to the douceur of the glans inel.adzhika.se/oplysninger/bfx-hofte.php on the outperform side of the penis. Any blossoming covering the pubic bone was compressed already appraisal, and any additional reach provided next to foreskin was not counted.

if you’re craving to extraordinary how you area up, you’ll constraint to do to the selfsame extensively entry getting on in years in the study. All while measurements were made from the pubic bone to the douceur of the glans inel.adzhika.se/oplysninger/bfx-hofte.php on the outperform side of the penis. Any blossoming covering the pubic bone was compressed already appraisal, and any additional reach provided next to foreskin was not counted.

Отправить комментарий

  • Адреса страниц и электронной почты автоматически преобразуются в ссылки.
  • Доступны HTML теги: <a> <em> <strong> <cite> <code> <ul> <ol> <li> <dl> <dt> <dd> <img>
  • Строки и параграфы переносятся автоматически.

Подробнее о форматировании